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External Research

National Research Council Canada

Over the last decade, aerial drones have been increasingly used by both professional and inexperienced users resulting in an increased risk of impact incidents throughout the world. Transport Canada has already implemented regulations dealing with the operation of drones, especially in sensitive areas such as airports where a safe distance must be observed. However, the risk of impacting an aircraft at low altitude remains from both malicious and careless operators.

NRC- Aerospace Research Centre has been performing bird impact testing both on aircraft structures, windshields as well as on engines since the 1960s where a number of pneumatic guns with various sizes have been developed and run for various clients. Over that period, NRC's bird guns were used to fire bird carcasses in accordance with ASTM standard (F330 - 16) to certify aircraft materials, gelatin synthetic birds for research purposes as well as steel balls. The latter test aimed at certifying a bullet-proof windshield of a fighter aircraft with a firing ball velocity reaching 1237 km/h (1.036 Mach, 668 knots)

The main objective of this collaborative work between Transport Canada, Defense Research and Development Canada and the National Research Council Canada is to perform a series of experiments simulating impacts between a representative quadcopter drone and various aircraft components (windshield and wing sections) at typical operating conditions of both the aircraft and drone (impact velocity, mass and type of projectile). The wings and windshields from a typical AWM 525 (Part 25) commercial aircraft were used for these impact tests. Tests were performed at operating conditions typical for approach and cruising speeds of an aircraft under 10,000 feet (3,048 m).

This final report gives an overall description of the test setup for windshield and wing leading edge impact testing and provides experimental data along with analysis and discussion.


Technology in Society (NTU Affiliate Member)

Human societies are constantly affected by advancement in technologies. Could drone application be the next game changer? Building on the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) model, we conducted a study to examine public perceptions of drone application in a South East Asian city state. While there are a number of common findings with past research, we were able to extend the understanding of drone application in urban areas with the following findings. First, using two knowledge tests, we were able to confirm that the majority of the public seems to have a good understanding of what a drone is. Second, acceptance levels towards drones did significantly differ depending on the context of use. Industrial areas had the highest acceptance level, followed by recreational areas and commercial areas while residential areas had the lowest acceptance level. Finally, different factors may be responsible for the varying levels of acceptance across the different contexts. We provided preliminary evidence that two factors - fears and concerns, and perceived potential benefits - affected the public acceptance levels differently depending on the contexts of drone applications. We concluded with implications for future research and policy makers

Final Report

News Links
NTU study finds Singapore public less keen on drone use in residential areas than in industrial zones - NTU News

NTU study finds Singapore public less keen on drone use in residential areas than in industrial zones - sUAS News